امتیاز موضوع:
  • 11 رأی - میانگین امتیازات: 2.55
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
تکنیک داوینچی ، پنهان در لبخند مونالیزه !
#1
[تصویر:  13480550881.jpg]





Hidden behind the Mona Lisa's enigmatic smile are dozens and dozens
of layers of ultra-thin glaze, according to French researchers who
examined the masterpiece through non-invasive X-ray fluorescence
spectroscopy.

The investigation revealed that up to 40 layers of transparent glaze,
possibly smeared on with the master's fingers, produced the unique
effect which is behind the lady's mysterious smile.


Known as "sfumato" from the Italian word "fumo" (meaning smoke), the
technique created subtle optical effects that blur outlines and blend
shadows as with fog.


Although the sfumato is known as one of the four painting modes of
the Renaissance (the other three are unione, chiaroscuro and cangiante),
not much was known on how the gradation was achieved.


Indeed, the Renaissance genius never explained how he was able to
blend shadow and light in such an imperceptible way. The only reference
to the sfumato technique appears in his notes on painting.


“Light and shade should blend without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke," Leonardo wrote.


Philippe Walter and colleagues at the Laboratoire du Centre de
Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France and the European
Synchrotron Radiation Facility used a non-destructive technique, X-ray
fluorescence spectroscopy, to analyze layer by layer the sfumato effect
in seven of Leonardo’s paintings.


Apart from the Mona Lisa, these collection also included the Belle Ferronnière, Virgin of the Rocks, Saint John the Baptist, Annunciation, Bacchus, and the Virgin and the Child with Saint Anne.


“A strong diversity in his technique could clearly be seen with this method,” the researchers wrote in the journal Angewandte Chemie.


The researchers, who concentrated on the faces because they feature
the characteristics of the sfumato, were able to analyze cross-sections
of the glaze layers as well as the composition and thickness of the
individual pigment layers.


Each layer of glaze in the Mona Lisa was between 1 to 2 micrometers
thick -- about 50 times thinner than a human hair. Layer over layer, the
total thickness was of no more than 30 to 40 micrometres. The darker
areas in the painting arose because a manganese-containing layer was
applied more thickly than in the lighter areas, said the researchers.



According to the analysis, the Mona Lisa’s elusive smile was generated
by the glaze blending with subtlety different pigments. This would
produce the slight blurring of the shadows around the mouth, creating a
mysterious glow.


X-rays on the other paintings, which span over 40 years of Leonardo’s
work, revealed that the master long experimented with the technique.


In an earlier painting, the Belle Ferronnière, the shade
effects are not the result of a glaze shining through, but are produced
with the classic procedure of dark pigments in oil technique.


“The master continuously improved his painting technique. In his
later paintings he was then able to produce translucent layers made of
films of an organic medium ranging from 30 to only a few micrometers in
thickness -- an amazing achievement even by today's standards,” Walter
said in a statement.


The sfumato technique required a long time for each layer of glaze to dry, which lasted weeks and months.



This would explain why Leonardo worked on the painting for over four
years. Possibly the world's most famous painting, the Mona Lisa was
completed toward the end of the life of Leonardo, who lived from 1452 to
1519.


Attempts to solve the enigma around her smile, described by the 16th
century artist and writer Giorgio Vasari as "more divine than human,"
have included theories that the noblewoman was happily pregnant,
suffering from asthma, had facial paralysis or that the smile was the
result of a compulsive gnashing of teeth.


Photo: Copyright: V.A. Solé/ESRF
در مورد اظهار نظر آقایون در تاپیک دلخوری باید بگم:
آقایون: کم گوی و گزیده گوی چون در// تا ز اندک تو جهان شود پر!!!
هرچند ک کلام گوهر بار از زبان شما جاری نشده، نمیشود و نخواهد شد!!!
پاسخ


موضوعات مرتبط با این موضوع...
موضوع نویسنده پاسخ بازدید آخرین ارسال
  آیا چشمهای مونالیزه رازی را پنهان میکند ؟ amir astronomer 10 663 20-09-2012، 02:01 AM
آخرین ارسال: mhk
  مونالیزه ... amir astronomer 0 669 19-09-2012، 04:02 PM
آخرین ارسال: amir astronomer

پرش به انجمن:


کاربرانِ درحال بازدید از این موضوع: 1 مهمان